The History of San Buenaventura.
The towns of the north of Mexico.
The history of San Buenaventura is very similar to many of the old towns of the north of Mexico and south of the United States, particularly that today is the states of Coahuila, Nuevo León, Texas and New Mexico, since many of them should be founded in several occasions, due mainly to the economic uncertainty of their first founders for the lack of wealth (that which it is not very favored the wide northern desert and that they were looked for by the Spanish conqueror) and on the other hand the continuous battles of the Indians and the invasion of the stealers in their territories or properties.
On the contrary, the generous and humble Franciscan friars with a love to the Indians, with no personal and material interests, they respected their customs and territories. . They were who not guided them by means of a quiet work alone, also by a peaceful and durable evangelism, in the work of keeping stable towns in territories very far from the center of Mexico. All this happened during the XVII and XVIII century guided by a great character called Friar Juan Larios.
The First Foundation.
At the end of the year 1673, the religious Friar Esteban Martínez, Friar Manuel de la Cruz and a friar beginner who was Friar Juan Barrera left from Guadalajara City to Zacatecas City in a mission to help the friar Juan Larios in the evangelism of Coahuila and that it had undertaken behind some months. To this mission it was joined in the mineral of Mapimí Friar Francisco Peñasco of Lozano, who in the day he entered to the way of Coahuila, he formerly call it “the way to Coaguyla”, for the direction guided to Parras by some Indians called the Coahuilos. When they passed by a beautiful canyon where the Indian Joras established (Approximately 20 Leagues of the Villa of New Almadén - today Monclova, Coah.), they arrived to an extensive valley with many swamps of where the water sprouted in abundance, they found many mats and wild vine. In those swamps some tribes of Indians spread by this district existed and that they were made call "The Salineros". Hunting and fishing were the base of their feeding, that was considerable in that region.
When seeing the missionaries that all those nations or tribes of Indians were docile and benevolent to be evangelized to the Christianity, the friar Manuel de la Cruz , he commended, congregated and exhorted to the tribes of; Bauzarigames, Tocas, Contótores, Cabezas y Colorados for a mission to which he called San Buenaventura of the Cuatro Ciénegas. This happened in July 14, 1674". Being this the origin of the name of San Buenaventura.
Months later this first mission was destroyed due to the constant hostilities that there were between the Indians; Cabezas, Contótores and Bauzarigames with the Indian Tobosos, and it was transferred temporarily by the missionary friar Martin Bonal to the south part of the called "The Nadadores Mouth".
The Second Foundation.
In the new establishment there was originated a bloody war between the same Indian bauzarigames against to the Contótores and the Cabezas. In this, the bauzarigames subjected to the 2 tribes to the grade that to the one it turns fatigued they took like refuge the rooms where the missionaries inhabited who defended them exposing their lives. The following day in which, the Cabeza and the Contótores had retired, the bauzarigames followed them to face them in a battle that It lasted from sunrise to sunset, and where were practically exterminated the Contótores and alone some of the Indians Cabezas survived.
The few survivors left to the road of Parras losing their lands and abandoned the mission for several years.
The Third Mission.
Several years must be passed so that in 1682 the Friar Martín Ponce carried out again the repopulate of the mission, already in the Nadadores Valley for the north side of the Nadadores Mouth, in a place called "La Laja", now only with peaceful Indians as they were the Indian Tocas and Colorados. To this new Mission was continued calling San Buenaventura, and only is added, the name of their inhabitants "Los Colorados" (San Buenaventura of the Colorados).
The Fourth Foundation.
Years later (1692) the Governor of Coahuila and Texas D. Diego Ramón visits the establishments that were located from Monclova to the "Mouth of the Nadadores" with the purpose of giving the new possession for the repopulate of the Indians Colorados on "La Laja", who requested to be relocated through their missionary, since they didn’t agree in that point due the vicinity with the Contótores Indians with which had old discords, and they demand to be transferred to a place to the north that they had already recognized and that was like to league and mediates of the mission of Santa Rosa of the Nadadores below, on the Salado or Nadadores River, very close to spring water, where it seemed them that the lands were working and where it also seemed them very easy to take out water of the own river to carry out to their cultivations.
Accepted the claim by the Mr. Governor Diego Ramón, they went to the mentioned place, the same day with their attendance, the missionary, that Friar who had been requested by Bernardo de Rojas and a group of the Colorados Indians, once there gave them possession of the lands and waters, providing them for the fringe left river under the Nadadores river. To this new establishment was called San Buenaventura of the Consolation.
It is up to 1693 when the captain D. Juan of Zigarroa was commissioned by the Viceroy Gaspar de la Cerda Sandoval Silva and Mendoza, count of Galve to carry out the measurements and markers of 6 places of more livestock, 3 Places of smaller livestock, 8 earth chivalries, a sack of water for the irrigable of his parcels. Besides to extend and to transfer the mission a little more to the south from the Nadadores river to the Colorados Indians and their missionary, so that they could take advantage of better way to water the agricultural lands giving them according to Real Ordinances, a sack of additional water with the quantity of enough water for their lands of bread to take and 4 additional places of more livestock.
This mission was not very successful; due to the saltpeter of the land where they had settle down their factories and that day by day went harming their properties besides that the land for its loamy structure was not lent for the agriculture, particularly in rainy season that flooded its villages.
June 4 1698, the missionary Friar Bernardo de Rojas and natural Indians of this mission of San Buenaventura of Consolation, made a request to the Governor of the County of the New Extremadura, D. Francisco Cuervo y Valdez so that they were allowed to transfer their population to the hills of the "The Mancas Pass" (Santa Gertrudis Hill), the request was lost in paper works or not given the importance considering that the Governor Cuervo was always characterized as a cruel personality and enemy of the Indians who should suffer molestations and slavery during its authority.
From 1700 to 1713 was a very difficult stage for the mission, since increased the attacks of the Indians, particularly the; Tripas Blancas, bauzarigames, Tobosos, Cabezas and other associated tribes who made constant pillaging to their properties and inhabitants. For what the scarce residents should abandon the mission
The Fifth Foundation.
On November 3 of 1735, they made to know the Archbishop-viceroy D. Juan Antonio of Vizarrón and Eguiarreta of the abandonment of the mission of San Buenaventura, ordering immediately that families of natural Indians of the mission of Santiago of Valladares (close to Candela, Coahuila) and of Mouth of the Lions (Today Villaldama, N. L.) they should pass to repopulate the mission, to this new mission was call San Buenaventura of Vizarrón.
It was later until one year in February, 1736 when they arrive to their destination the 15 families coming from Santiago of Fences who were presented accompanied by Friar Bernardo of Aguilar, and it was him same who gives artificial and ecclesiastical possession, leaving as in charge to friar Ignacio Enríquez of Castillo so that evangelism to the new habitants that repopulation and administered the spiritual aids. Frair Ignacio immediately undertakes a great crusade of dynamism being devoted to repair the convent and the cells, putting under conditions some days the abandoned chapel to the doctrinal service. On the other hand the new neighbors were dedicated equally to repair the housings that were of the Colorados Indians and to put them in circumstances of being inhabited; they gave cleaning to the old canal, they dismounted and they prepared the cultivation lands for the seed of basic grains in the next agricultural cycle and with good results.
In spite of having been given possession in the year of 1736 it was up to October 20, 1744 when they were carried out the official measures of lands and waters of the mission of San Buenaventura of Vizarrón, these measures were made by the own Captain Pedro of Rábago and Terán.
In that same year the census of population of San Buenaventura of Vizarrón stayed the same 16 families for a total of 51 people all the ages and sexes, which were presided over by the religious Friar Juan of Guevara.
The mission of San Buenaventura of Vizarrón instead of prospering, like it was expected it began go down quickly, largely to the apathy and their residents' negligence that little by little began to abandon her and to emigrate to the near towns, partly for that was an isolated territory to the main Prisons, what allowed with easiness the attacks of the Indians. These news arrived to hearings and the viceroy's knowledge D. Francisco of Güemez and Horcasitas who it orders with date of January 23, 1747 that it was made an inspection to see the conditions of this mission, being totally uninhabited, since their residents had left to Nadadores or to Santiago of the Monclova.
With date November 5, 1747 the Viceroy D. Juan Francisco of Güemez and Horcasitas Count of Revillagigedo, sent an official statement to D, Pedro of Rábago and Terán Governor and Lieutenant of General Captain of Coahuila, related with I repopulate of the abandoned mission of San Buenaventura, with families of the Capital of the State of Coahuila and Texas (Santiago of the Monclova) that doesn't have own lands and they not committed alone to cultivate them, but to pay the Indians the crop and goods that had. Since the Captain Rábago and Terán were outside of the Capital in an expedition toward the north for the part of Texas (Big-Bend, the rivers Joint gathering and the Mountains of the Chisos Indian), he responded immediately that to their return, charge will be taken personally of the classification. Again in letter of January 15 1748 the same Viceroy reiterates him this classification, to form the "I Populate of Our Lady of Guadalupe of Horcasitas of San Buenaventura of the Consolation" and that concluded the mission stage, this is transcription of the second order:
March 6, 1785 with D. Pedro Tueros as a Governor, he carried out a recognition for this region visiting our town that then San Buenaventura of Our lady of Guadalupe of Horcasitas called herself, with the purpose of to verify personally which had been the advance and its residents' well-being from the short period from its foundation to that date (37 years). And which serious its surprise that grants him immediately the village category with the name when observing the progress and great economic push that it had achieved this community in few years, simply of the village de San Buenaventura of the Nadadores Valley.
The other name.
As additional fact of reference to the name of the municipality, March 21, 1906 in commemoration of the first centennial of the Birthday of D. Benito Juárez García in the square of weapons "Miguel Hidalgo" takes place a celebration for uncover a bust of the meritorious one of the America.
In this same act reading is given to an edict of Porfirio Díaz Mori Mexican government, in which the name of the village is changed of San Buenaventura, for the name of "free Municipality and autonomous of Nicolás Bravo" (Hero of independence).
This name that it was never accepted by the people, given the events and the dissatisfaction in this region toward the dictatorship porfirista, fact that years later would come to end in the Revolutionary rising of 1910 where many of our compatriots participated.
By the way this edict was never abolished.
It is of appreciating the simplicity of the samboneses people of that time in that to the civic act of the centennial and change of the population's name was given little importance, standing out of more relevance a plant of a tree (in front of the municipal presidency) for the then municipal president D. Epigmenio Cadena as a symbol of strength and wisdom for the future generations.
The foundation in 1748
Even if it doesn't exist a document that specifically is declared as an act of foundation reminiscent of such and to establish the exact date for the founding of the town of San Buenaventura in the year of 1748, is maybe the transcription of the present document that summarizes that happened from January 23 of 1747 in that the Viceroy orders the repopulate of the old mission of San Buenaventura, going by the protocol of measures (by the way made several occasions at the request of the neighboring of Nadadores), appraisal and evaluation of the shacks and goods of the Indians, the grant of lands to 36 families, and finally the signature of acceptance of her you lead spiritual and political:
The names of the founders of the town of San Buenaventura were:
1.- Manuel Flores de Valdés, 2.- Joseph Plácido Flores, 3.- Juan Ignacio de Castilla y Riojas, 4.- Manuel Andrés del Moral y Seballos, 5.- Sra. Xabiera Ramón, 6.- Fernando Tijerina, 7.- Bernardo de Cepeda, 8.- José Conti, 9.- Joseph Garcia, 10.- Pedro Ramón, 11.- Joseph Menchaca Baesa, 12.- Pedro de Hoyos, 13.- Sra. Maria Guadalupe Flores, 14.- José Tijerina, 15.- José de Umeda y Bernal, 16.- Juan Antonio De la Cerda, 17.- Sra. Maria Guadalupe Quintana, 18.- Cristóbal Menchaca, 19.- Francisco Xabier Maldonado, 20.- Manuel de Hoyos, 21.- Sra. Isabel Menchaca, 22.- Miguel de Hoyos, 23.- Cristóbal Garcia, 24.- Onofre Guerrero, 25.- Alejandro Falcón, 26.- Pablo González, 27.- Manuel Maldonado, 28.- Joseph Falcón, 29.- Sra. Leonor Menchaca, 30.- Manuel Rodriguez y 31.- Juan Antonio Garcia.
To who thanks to the perseverance, arduous work and sacrifice of these families finally the town is founded in the place in that at the moment know to our municipality.
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